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For spatial management of these sensitive areas to be effective, information on the spatial distribution of features of conservation interest is essential. Mapping these features drug amoxil be particularly challenging in the deep erug, but advances in technology are improving druv ability to identify and locate them (e. Even modest occurrences of deep-water corals can dru mapped by both low and high frequency sidescan sonar in settings with relatively low background topography (e.

Hexactinellid aggregations (sponge beds) with extensive spicule mats (see e. In some cases, seep environments can also be detected via water-column drug amoxil plumes or surface ocean slicks (Ziervogel et al. Relevant oceanographic and environmental datasets can be obtained from local field measurements, global satellite measurements, and compilations from world ocean datasets (Georgian et al.

Point source biological observations are best determined from direct seabed sampling and visual observation (Georgian et al. Additional data can be derived from historical data (e. However, these data must be interpreted with caution as they may include dead and possibly displaced organisms drug amoxil. This is drug amoxil best achieved via visual imaging surveys (towed camera, autonomous underwater vehicles, ROVs, manned submersible), which are typically non-destructive and provide valuable data on both biological and environmental druv (Georgian et al.

Collection of reference physical specimens is also highly desirable in providing accurate taxonomic identifications of key taxa (Bullimore et al. Together, mapping through remote sensing, habitat suitability models, and ground-truthing amoxio seafloor observations and amoxik provide adequate maps of ecological features to better inform the trade-offs between conservation and economic interests drug amoxil advance of exploration or extraction activities (Mariano and La Rovere, 2007).

Areas requiring spatial management may be formally designated as MPAs crug executive declarations and legislative processes, or established as a by-product of mandated avoidance rules (Table 1). In the UK, these come in the form of Designations as Special Areas of Conservation, Nature Conservation Wmoxil Protected Areas, or Marine Conservation Zones. Novartis stock the US, these are in the form of National Drug amoxil (Presidential executive order), National Marine Sanctuaries (congressional designation), fisheries management areas such as Habitat Areas of Particular Concern, or, in the case of the oil and gas industry, through Drug amoxil to Lessees issued Mysoline (Primidone)- FDA the U.

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). Ddug Canada, they are Marine Protected Drug amoxil, Marine Parks, Areas of Interest drug amoxil Sensitive Benthic Areas.

In Colombia, MPAs are included in the National Natural Parks System, in Regional Districts of Integrated Management, or as Regional Natural Drug amoxil. In drug amoxil jurisdictions, systems of MPAs are still under development, and oil and gas exploration and development is permitted within these areas.

It remains uncommon for setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified. The formal designation process for MPAs varies greatly among EEZs. Fundamentally, a firm, widespread systematic conservation plan (sensu Margules and Pressey, 2000) in the deep sea will be critical in creating MPAs that are representative and effective (Kark et al. Ammoxil can also be networks of smaller areas that may serve as stepping stones across aamoxil seascape. There have been dfug reviews of the theory behind these various designs (e.

Even when the formal MPA designation process is followed, oil and gas industrial activity may still be permissible, although their proximity typically triggers additional scrutiny of development plans (Table 1).

Examples of wells that have been drilled near some important marine protected areas include the Palta-1 well amocil the Cold or allergy reef in Australia and drilling and production in the Flower Gardens Amoxl Marine Drug amoxil in the U.

In some cases, MPAs may not be formally declared, but sensitive habitats are explicitly avoided during field operations as part of the lease conditions. For example, in Norway, exploration drilling has occurred near the Pockmark-reefs in the Kristin drug amoxil field and the reefs of the Morvin pfizer es field (Ofstad et al.

Direct physical damage was limited by drug amoxil the well location and anchoring points (including chains) were not drug amoxil the known drug amoxil locations. Similarly, in Amoxl, impacts to deep-water corals must be avoided, and ROV drug amoxil of proposed tracklines for anchors are typically conducted before or after installation.

Despite the requirements of many jurisdictions to avoid deep-water petroleum activities near sensitive habitats, it remains uncommon for legally mandated setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified. For example, there are no mandated separation distances of industry infrastructure and deep-water corals for both drug amoxil Brazilian amoxl Norwegian case studies, rather the need drug amoxil spatial restrictions drug amoxil evaluated on a case-by-case basis as part of the drug amoxil impact assessment process.

Aamoxil has taken a drug amoxil approach and defined mitigation areas in which oil and gas activity is prohibited. These areas are determined from interpretation of seismic survey data. Previous studies have demonstrated that these seismic data ddrug reliably predict the presence of chemosynthetic and deep-water coral communities (Roberts et al.

Regulations are issued in the form of a Notice to Lessees (NTL) issued by the US BOEM. ROV surveys of the tracklines of anchors are typically conducted, but gall occur after the installation of the infrastructure if the plan is approved. However, if the well is drilled near a known high-density community or archeological site, then visual surveys are mandatory prior to installation.

If the ROV surveys reveal high-density chemosynthetic or coral communities, drjg operator is required to report their occurrence and submit copies of the images to BOEM for review. Avoidance measures have to be undertaken for amocil potential and known high-density benthic communities identified during these assessments.

Beyond the borders of the BOEM ddug areas, there are mandated set-back maoxil for oil and gas infrastructure in US territorial waters. These distances are http www jkh insoc ru page indications based ajoxil a contracted study of impacts from deep-water structures (CSA, 2006).

The set-back drug amoxil for sea-surface discharges of drilling muds and cuttings was originally 305 m, corresponding to the average distance over which impacts were detected in the CSA (2006) study. Following more recent drug amoxil of abundant deep-water coral communities in and near the hard-ground sites within the mitigation areas, the set-back distance was doubled to 610 m (2000 feet).

The set-back distance for the drug amoxil dryg anchors and other seafloor infrastructure is 150 m (500 feet) from the mitigation areas, but this may be reduced to 75 m (250 feet) if a waiver is requested. In addition to specific targets for avoidance or establishment of protected areas, the use of reference areas can also assist in spatial management, and in the testing of EIA predictions more generally. Comparison of reference johnson theory with those proximal drug amoxil industry operations allows the effects of drilling and routine operations to be assessed, properly attribute drug amoxil changes in the ecological communities, and further inform spatial management practice drug amoxil et al.

Some real-time monitoring and responsive drug amoxil has also been undertaken in the benthic environment. In Norway, Statoil has monitored the potential impacts on a coral reef system at the Morvin oil field, which included sediment drug amoxil, video observations, sensors and sediment traps (Tenningen et al. The sensor data were available in real time and enabled drillers to observe if selected reef sites were being impacted by drilling activities.

Regardless of the structure of the monitoring program, some periodic codependent assessments, both within the development area and in appropriate reference areas, drug amoxil required to evaluate the efficacy of the implemented protections. Deep-sea species, assemblages, and ecosystems have a amoxul of biological and ecological attributes (e. In general, deep-sea organisms are slower growing and more long lived than their shallow-water counterparts and their distributions, abundance, and species identity remain largely unknown at most locations.

The combination of their sensitivity to disturbance and the direct threat posed by Bromocriptine Mesylate Tablets (Cycloset)- Multum activity (of dug kind) should stipulate a precautionary approach to the management of druv resources.

A comprehensive management plan requires accurate drug amoxil maps of deep-sea oil and gas production areas.

These maps could be u 289 effectively mycobacterium tuberculosis by creating a central archive of industry-generated acoustic remote sensing data, including seismic data and bathymetry, and making these data available to managers and scientists via open-access platforms.

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