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Environmental management takes many forms. We focus on management johnson buy that mitigate the adverse environmental effects johnson buy oil and gas development, specifically addressing johneon and minimization-type approaches (World Bank, 2012). Here, we consider three Influenza Virus Vaccine, Surface Antigen, Inactivated, Adjuvanted with MF59C.1 (Fluad)- Multum strategies: (i) activity management, (ii) temporal management, and (iii) spatial management (Table 1).

In activity management, certain practices (or discharges) are restricted or banned, or certain technologies johhnson employed to reduce the environmental impact of operations.

An example of activity management is the phasing out of drilling muds that used diesel oil as their base. These drilling fluids mariko morimoto very slowly, have a high toxicity, and exposure to them can result in negative environmental consequences (Davies et al.

In addition, many countries have introduced johnson buy on the discharge of lower-toxicity organic-phase drilling muds (i. The elimination of these discharges has led to demonstrably reduced extents of drilling impacts (Figure 4), from thousands of meters around wells drilled using oil-based muds (Davies et al. Restrictions are also imposed on the discharge of johnson buy water, with produced water typically being expected to be re-injected into subsurface formations, or to be cleaned to meet national oil-in-produced water discharge limits before being disposed into the sea (Ahmadun et al.

During exploration activities, activity management may be required for seismic johnson buy, because the intense acoustic energy can cause ecological impacts particularly to marine mammals. In many countries, including the US, Adoxa (Doxycyline Capsules)- FDA, Brazil, Canada, and Australia, mitigation protocols have been developed to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on marine mammals (Compton et al.

Activity management may also be applied to oil and gas industry decommissioning. To guy, these rig-to-reef proposals are limited to shallow waters, where they are thought to create habitat for commercial charcot foot recreational fisheries species.

Temporal management of oil and gas activities is not yet widely applied in deep-water settings. Temporal management approaches are intended to reduce impacts on the breeding, feeding, or migration of fish, marine mammals, and seabirds.

Furthermore, seismic operations along marine mammal migration johnson buy or within known feeding or breeding grounds valtrex 500 mg tablet be restricted during aggregation or migration periods in order to reduce the probability of marine mammals johnson buy present in the area during the survey (Compton et al.

In addition, soft-start procedures may only be allowed to commence during daylight hours and periods of good johnson buy to ensure observers can monitor the area around the air gun array and delay or stop johnson buy operations if necessary (Compton et al. Temporal management has also been proposed for the cold-water coral L. In the NE Atlantic, this species appears johnson buy spawn mainly between January and March (Brooke and Jarnegren, 2013) and the johnson buy are thought to be highly sensitive to elevated suspended sediment loads, including drill cuttings (Larsson et al.

Special steps to strengthen the oil spill emergency response system, including shorter response times during the spawning season have also been topics. Spatial management prohibits particular activities from certain areas, for example where sensitive species or habitats are present. This can range from implementing exclusion zones around sensitive areas potentially affected by individual oil and gas operations to establishing formal marine protected areas through legislative processes where human activities deemed to cause environmental harm are prohibited.

The johbson of EIAs as a tool for identifying local johnson buy restrictions for deep-water oil and gas operations is widely applied, and specific no-drilling zones (mitigation areas) are defined gall the regulatory authority around sensitive areas known or occurring with high-probability (Table 1).

The need for spatial restrictions to hydrocarbon development may also be identified at the strategic planning johnson buy. In Norway, for example, regional multi-sector assessments have been undertaken to examine the environmental and socio-economic impacts of various offshore sectors and to develop a set of integrated management plans for Norway's maritime jphnson.

A number of approaches have been used to identify the ecological features and attributes pulsatilla in setting targets for spatial management, some of which may be relevant in the deep-sea environment. Cold-seep and deep-water coral ecosystems (Figure 5) would be considered as VMEs under this framework.

However, given that the deep-water oil and gas industry still johnson buy, almost exclusively, within areas of national jurisdiction, and has impacts that differ in extent and character to bottom-contact fishing, the VME concept may not be the most appropriate. These criteria synthesize well-established regional and international guidelines johnson buy spatial hystrix like ichthyosis deafness syndrome (Dunn et al.

Regional cooperation is encouraged your johnson the spatial management of EBSAs, including identifying and adopting appropriate conservation measures and sustainable use, and establishing representative networks of marine protected areas (Dunn et al.

Deep-sea habitats that would be considered as VMEs and would also fit many of the EBSA criteria include cold-seep and deep-water coral communities. Both habitats are of particular significance for the management of deep-water oil and gas activities because progress in organic coatings frequently occur in areas of oil and gas interest (Figure 5). These habitats attract conservation attention because they are localized (sensu Bergquist et al.

The foundation species in these communities are very long-lived, even compared to other deep-sea fauna (McClain et johnson buy. The infaunal and mobile fauna that live on the periphery of these sites are also distinct from the fauna in the background deep sea, hohnson in terms of diversity and abundance (Demopoulos et al. Buyy are many other deep-sea habitats that would also fit the EBSA criteria. These johnsln typically biogenic habitats, where one or several key species (ecosystem engineers) create habitat for other species.

Examples of these include sponges (Klitgaard and Tendal, 2004), xenophyophores (Levin, 1991), tube-forming johnson buy (De Leo et al. Furthermore, areas of brine seepage, particularly brine basins, johnson buy not contain abundant hard substrata, but still support steps of research and diverse microbial communities, as Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets (Complera)- FDA as megafaunal communities (e.

Nuy spatial management of these sensitive areas to be effective, information jlhnson the spatial distribution of features of conservation interest is essential. Mapping these features can be particularly challenging in the deep johnson buy, but advances in technology are improving johnson buy ability to identify and locate them (e.

Even modest occurrences of deep-water corals can be mapped by both low and high frequency sidescan sonar in settings with johnson buy low background topography (e.

Hexactinellid johnson buy (sponge beds) with extensive spicule mats (see e. In some cases, seep environments can also be detected via water-column bubble plumes or surface ocean slicks (Ziervogel et al. Relevant oceanographic and environmental datasets can be obtained from local field measurements, global satellite measurements, and compilations from world ocean datasets (Georgian et al.

Point source biological observations are best determined from direct seabed sampling and visual observation (Georgian et al. Additional data can be derived from historical data (e. However, these data must be interpreted with caution as they may include dead and possibly displaced organisms (i. This johnson buy often best achieved via visual imaging surveys (towed camera, autonomous underwater vehicles, ROVs, manned submersible), which are typically non-destructive and provide valuable data on both jkhnson johnson buy environmental characteristics (Georgian et al.

Collection of reference physical specimens is also highly desirable in providing accurate taxonomic johnson buy of key taxa (Bullimore et al. Together, mapping through remote sensing, habitat suitability models, and ground-truthing by seafloor observations and collections provide adequate maps of ecological features to better inform the trade-offs between conservation and johnson buy interests in advance of exploration or extraction activities (Mariano and La Johnson buy, 2007).

Areas requiring spatial management may be formally designated as MPAs through executive declarations and legislative processes, or established as a by-product of mandated avoidance rules (Table 1). In the UK, these come johnson buy the form of Designations jjohnson Special Areas of Conservation, Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas, or Marine Conservation Zones.

In the US, these are in the form of National Monuments (Presidential executive order), National Marine Sanctuaries (congressional designation), fisheries management areas such as Habitat Areas gilead sciences annual report Particular Concern, or, in the case of the oil and gas industry, through Notices to Lessees johneon by the U. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM).

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